In ancient art Artemis was usually depicted as a girl or young maiden with a hunting bow and quiver of arrows. 32, 577, 1732.) According to the Homeric account and Hesiod (Theog. § 3) found in Aeschylus, Artemis was a daughter of Demeter, and not of Leto, while according to an Egyptian story (Herod. 156) she was the daughter of Dionysus and Isis, and Leto was only her nurse. Nor let any shun the yearly dance; for not tearless to Hippo [an Amazon queen] was her refusal to dance around the altar.
Artemis' mother Leto was hounded throughout her pregnancy by the jealous goddess Hera but eventually found refuge on the floating island of Delos. (Hesiod Theogony 918, Hesiod Works & Days 770, Homer Iliad 1.9 & 21.495, Homer Odyssey 6.100 & 11.318, Homeric Hymn 27 to Artemis, Orphic Hymn 35, Pindar Nemean Ode 6 & 8, Pindar Processional Song on Delos, Callimachus Hymn to Artemis & Hymn to Delos, Apollodorus 1.21 & 3.46, Pausanias 8.9.1 & 8.53.1. 918) she was the daughter of Zeus and Leto, whence Aeschylus (Sept. She was the sister of Apollo, and born with him at the same time in the island of Delos. But these and some other legends are only the results of the identification of the Greek Artemis with other local or foreign divinities. Hail, great queen, and graciously greet my song." "To Prothyraia [Artemis], Fumigation from Storax.
§ 1.) She was worshipped in several places together with her brother; and the worship of both divinities was believed to have come from the Hyperboreans, and Hyperborean maidens brought sacrifices to Delos. These circumstances, together with the fact, that her surnames and epithets in Arcadia are nearly all derived from the mountains, rivers, and lakes, shew that here she was the representative of some part or power of nature. Further thou dist greatly commend swift-footed Atalanta, the slayer of boards, daughter of Arkadian Iasios (Arcadian Iasius), and taught her hunting with dogs and good archery . For thee, too, the Amazones (Amazons), whose mind is set on war, in Ephesos (Ephesus) beside the sea established an image beneath an oak trunk, and Hippo [an Amazon queen] performed a holy rite for thee, and they themselves, O Oupis (Opis) Queen, around the image danced a war-dance--first in shields and armour, and again in a circle arraying a spacious choir.
32, 35.) The laurel was sacred to both divinities, and both were regarded as the founders and protectors of towns and streets. There was no connexion between the Arcadian Artemis and Apollo, nor are there any traces here of the ethical character which is so prominent in Artemis, the sister of Apollo. These were the first who wore the gallant bow and arrow-holding quivers on their shoulders; their right shoulders bore the quiver strap, and always the right breast showed bare. the founder of Miletos] make his Guide, when he put off with his ships from the land of Kekrops (Cecrops) [i.e. Khesias (Chesias) (Lady of Khesion) and Imbrasia (Lady of Imbrasos), throned in the highest, to thee in thy shrine did Agamemnon dedicate the rudder of his ship, a charm against ill weather, when thou didst bind the winds for him, what time the Akhaian (Achaean) ships sailed to vex the cities of the Teukroi [i.e. For thee surely Proitos (Proetus) established two shrines, one of Artemis Kore (Core) (Maidenhood) for that thou dist gather for him his maiden daughters, when they were wandering over the Azanian hills; the other he founded in Lousa to Artemis Hemere (the Gentle), because thou tookest from his daughters the spirit of wildness.
as to whether she was a purely spiritual and ethical divinity, as Müller thinks, or whether she was the representative of some power in physical nature; and the question must be decided here in the same manner as in the case of Apollo. [The story of her birth and childhood follow, see The Childhood of Artemis for this part of the hymn.] . On their cattle plague feeds, on their tilth feeds frost, and the old men cut their hair in mourning over their sons, and their wives either are smitten or die in childbirth, or, if they escape, bear birds whereof none stands on upright ankle. But when the Nymphai (Nymphs) encircle thee in the dance, near the springs of Aigyptian (Egyptian) Inopos [on the island of Delos] or Pitane [in Aiolia or Lakonia]--for Pitane too is thine--or in Limnai [in Lakonia] or where, goddess, thou camest from Skythia (Scythia) to dwell, in Alai Araphenides [i.e.
Respecting the real and original character of Artemis as the sister of Apollo, we encounter the same difficulties as those mentioned in the article Apollo, viz. § 5.) In the precincts of her sanctuaries there were often sacred wells, as at Corinth. And now I will remember you and another song also." "Of Artemis we hymn--no light thing is it for singers to forget her - whose study is the bow and the shooting of hares and the spacious dance and sport upon the mountains. The fourth time [Artemis shot her bow]--not long was it ere thou didst shoot at the city of unjust me, those who to one another and those who towards strangers wrought many deeds of sin, forward men, on whom thou wilt impress thy grievous wrath.
Artemis' most distinctive attributes were her bow and arrows but she was also sometimes equipped with a quiver, pair of hunting spears, torch, lyre, and/or water-jug. Her name is usually derived from artemês, uninjured, healthy, vigorous; according to which she would be the goddess who is herself inviolate and vigorous, and also grants strength and health to others. Artemis Eileithyia, venerable power, who bringest relief in labour's dreadful hour; hear, Prothyraia and make the infant race thy constant care." "To Artemis, Fumigation from Manna. § 1.) Some traditions stated, that Artemis made Iphigeneia immortal, in the character of Hecate, the goddess of the moon. Her worship was said to have been established at Ephesus by the Amazons. In the case of Artemis, it is evident, that new elements and features were added in various places to the ancient local mythus; the worship of one divinity is identified with that of another, and the legends of the two are mixed up into one, or those of the one are transferred to the other, whose legends then sink into oblivion. § 2., The symbol of this divinity was a bee, and her highpriest bore the name of king (essên). It is impossible to trace the various relations in which Artemis appears to us to one common source, or to one fundamental idea : the very manner in which such a complicated mythus was formed renders the attempt futile, or, to say the least, forced. This relation between the two is in many other cases described as the relation of husband and wife, and there seems to have been a tradition which actually described Artemis as the wife of Apollo. Sudden deaths, but more especially those of women, are described as the effect of her arrows. Thus, for instance, she healed Aeneas, when he was wounded and carried into the temple of Apollo. 447.) In the Trojan war she sided, like Apollo, with the Trojans. Her bow, quiver, and arrows, were made by Hephaestus, and Pan provided her with dogs. 51.) Her temples and sanctuaries in Arcadia were usually near lakes or rivers, whence she was called limnêtis or limnaia. And the echo reached unto Sardis and to the Berekynthian range [in Phrygia]. 476, &c.) In the description of the nature and character of this goddess, it is necessary to distinguish between the different points of view from which the Greeks regarded her, and also between the really Greek Artemis and certain foreign divinities, who for some resemblance or another were identified by the Greeks with their own Artemis. is a kind of female Apollo, that is, she as a female divinity represented the same idea that Apollo did as a male divinity. 1197.) In the character of sister of Apollo, Artemis is like her brother armed with a bow, quiver, and arrows, and sends plague and death among men and animals : she is a thea apollousa. 606.) As Apollo was not only a destructive god, but also averted the evils which it was in his power to inflict, so Artemis was at the same time a thea sôteira; that is, she cured and alleviated the sufferings of mortals. In Arcadia she hunted with her nymphs on Taygetus, Erymanthus, and Maenalus; twenty nymphs accompanied her during the chase, and with sixty others, daughters of Oceanus, she held her dances in the forests of the mountains. And the loud pipes thereto piped shrill accompaniment, that they might foot the dance together (for not yet did they pierce the bones of the fawn [to create flutes], Athene's handiwork, a bane to the deer).